Category Archives: (N) Hacking TUTS

Install and Run Windows 10 8 7 XP on Any Android Phone NO ROOT 2017

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Install and Run Windows 10 8 7 XP on Any Android Phone NO ROOT 2017

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DDoS Attacks Will Crash the Internet Again (And Again, And Again)

  • This was the year of Internet of Things botnets, in which malware infects inconspicuous devices like routers and DVRs and then coordinates them to overwhelm an online target with a glut of internet traffic, in what’s known as a disrupted denial of service attack (DDoS).
  • Botnets have traditionally been built with compromised PCs, but poor IoT security has made embedded devices an appealing next frontier for hackers, who have been building massive IoT botnets.
  • The most well-known example in 2016, called Mirai, was used this fall to attack and temporarily bring down individual websites, but was also turned on Internet Service Providers and internet-backbone companies, causing connectivity interruptions around the world.
  • DDoS attacks are used by script kiddies and nation states alike, and as long as the pool of unsecured computing devices endlessly grows, a diverse array of attackers will have no disincentive from turning their DDoS cannons on internet infrastructure. And it’s not just internet connectivity itself.
  • Hackers already used a DDoS attack to knock out central heating in some buildings in Finland in November. The versatility of DDoS attacks is precisely what makes them so dangerous. In 2017, they’ll be more prevalent than ever.

Windows 10 tip: Protect removable storage devices with BitLocker encryption

Do you use a USB flash drive, MicroSD card, or portable hard drive to keep backups of important files? Protect yourself by encrypting removable storage devices so your files can’t be accessed if the drive is lost or stolen.

 

humb drives, SD cards, and portable hard drives are tremendously convenient. They’re also tremendously risky.

If your removable drive is lost or stolen, whoever finds it has complete access to its contents, which might include confidential files and personal information.

To eliminate that risk, use the BitLocker To Go feature of Windows 10 Pro and Enterprise editions to encrypt the drive so that it can’t be read without a password.

After inserting the drive, open File Explorer, right-click the drive’s entry, and click Turn On BitLocker. That starts the BitLocker Drive Encryption wizard. Enter a password and save a recovery key so that you can regain access to the data if you forget that password. For removable drives, choose Compatible Mode (which allows you to open the drive even on older Windows PCs) and then finish the wizard.

The encrypted drive can be opened on any Windows PC, even one that’s running a non-business edition of Windows. Enter the password and choose the Automatically unlock on this PC option to avoid having to enter the password on a PC where you’re already signed in. If you lose the drive, whoever finds it will be unable to read its contents without the password or recovery key.

Remove Bitmessage Ransomware Permanently

Research on Bitmessage Ransomware

In case your Microsoft Office files, images, videos, audios, emails and databases are injected with an .1999, .bleep, or .ccc extension, it indicates that your computer has been infected with file-encrypting Ransomware such as TelsaCrypt, RSA-2048 or Bitmessage , which is destructive virus made by hacker for robbing money online. Similar to common ransomware, Bitmessage mainly sneaks into your system via spam email attachments. Such suspicious emails will disguise as normal email sent by your friends, families or from famous companies, and they usually contain a document, photo or video file needed you to download. As soon as you download the attachments and open it, your files will be ruined by Bitmessage within a sec. Most of your files are changed into weird name with .1999, .vvv, or .ccc extension, and you will see a unknown TXT file in the infected folders or a popup photo on your screen, which is used to show you the warning message asking you to pay ransom fees to buy the decryption key.

delete Bitmessage

Bitmessage is definitely an evil tool used by hacker to make money illegally. After it locks your files, it charge lots of money for recovering your files. Some people think that they can call the police or FBI to catch the hackers and get the files back, but unfortunately, no one can track these top hackers so far, because they use encrypted tunnel with fake name to contact the victims, and their accounts for receiving the money are Bitcoin account, thus they can rob your money without being punished.

Most of victims may choose to compromise and send the ransom fees to exchange their precious files but are you sure that these cyber criminal who created Bitmessage virus will recovere your files after you pay? Our research team found that there is no guarantee on such payment, lots of victims paid lots of money but still lost all files. Therefore, we suggest not to pay money to these hackers. It is a huge risk, not only on your money , but your private information such as banking accounts. Your credit cards and banking accounts may even be hacked by Bitmessage if you pay the ransom money.

In such a situation, the right things you need to do is: 1. Remove all malicious files, codes of Bitmessage and related threats from your system completely; 2. Restore your files with your back-up (if available), or use third party legitimate data recovery software to recover your files. In case you are a victims of Bitmessage ransomware, follow the guide below to cure your computer now and try your luck with the data recovery tools to save your files. We hope this tutorial will be helpful to you.

Bitmessage Removal Tutorial

First Method – Manually Remove Bitmessage (For Users with Expert Skills)

Second Method – Automatically Remove Bitmessage Quickly and Safely (Easy For All Computer Users)


First Method – Bitmessage Manual Removal

Step 1 – End Bitmessage process in Task Manager.

1. Press “Ctrl+ Shift + Esc” keys to call out Windows Task Manager
2. Click Processes > find Bitmessage process or suspicious processes and select End process.
remove Bitmessage virus

Step 2 – Uninstall Bitmessage and suspicious programs from Control Panel.

Windows 10 : Click Start Menu >> Click All Apps >> Find out Bitmessage and other unwanted programs, then right-click on it and select Uninstall:
get rid of Bitmessage

delete Bitmessage

Windows 8
  • Move the mouse to the lower-left corner of the screen and clicking the Start button;
  • Type “control panel” in search box and then click Control Panel.
  • Find Bitmessage and unwanted programs >> click Uninstall

Bitmessage removal

how do i remove Bitmessage
Win 7 / Vista / XP
  • Click Start button >> click Control Panel in Start Menu
  • Click Uninstall a program to open Programs and Features
  • Find Bitmessage and unwanted programs >> click Uninstall

 

how can i get rid of Bitmessage
how do i delete Bitmessage

Step 3 Remove Bitmessage related registry files in Registry.

  • Press Win + R keys together to open Run window
  • Type “regedit” and click OK
  • Find out all related registry files of Bitmessage:

HKEY_LOCAL_MACHINESYSTEMCurrentControlSetServicesWpm
HKEY_CURRENT_USERSoftwareMicrosoftInternet ExplorerMain “Default_Page_URL”
HKEY_LOCAL_Machine\Software\Classes\[adware name]
HKEY_CURRENT_USER\Software\Microsoft\Windows\CurrentVersion\Run “.exe”
HKCU\Software\Microsoft\Windows\CurrentVersion\Internet Settings\random
HKEY_LOCAL_MACHINE\SOFTWARE\Microsoft\Windows\CurrentVersion\run\random
HKEY_CURRENT_USER\Software\Microsoft\Windows\CurrentVersion\Internet Settings “CertificateRevocation” = ’0


(Note – This guide is only provided as an reference to help you get rid of Bitmessage ransomware to make your PC healthy and prevent new files being infected. We cannot promise that the recommended tools can recover every user’s files which have been encrypted by the most dangerous ransomware such as Bitmessage. Wish you with good luck!)

———————————————————————————
Tips on Prevent Virus and Malware Such as Bitmessage
If you want to keep your PC from all kinds viruses and malware active online, you need to always follow these rules while using your PC:
1. Always choose Custom Installation while installing freeware so that you can deselect unwanted options or cancel unauthorized change;
2. Always scan attachments in emails before you open it; never open any attachment or click links on emails which you do not know if it is safe;
3. Do not visit any porn website because most of porn websites embedded with malicious codes from cyber criminal;
4. Always scan torrent files and other files downloaded from third party website before you open them;
5. Never update any of your software from third party website; make sure the software update alert appearing on your screen is from official website;

6. Do not click ads (e.g. “Ads by “, “Ads brought by “, “Ads powered by “, etc. ) which do not belong to the websites you visit.

How To Get WiFi Password of your Friends without Rooting

Method Number 1

Important Information

 

First of all you have to download Wi-Fi WPS WPA TESTER from Google Play Store

This app can hack only WPS & WPA routers. It cannot Hack WPA2 Router to hack password. and it only support Latest Version of Android, Android 5.O or later then it so your android must be updated.

1. Install the Wi-Fi WPS WPA TESTER from Google Play Store and open the app.
Also Read: Best Hacking Apps for Android Phones 2016

2. Click onto the Refresh button it will show your available networks.

3. If it shows a red icon after network name then it cannot hack it and if it show green icon then it can hack the password.

4. Select the Green network.

5. Now click on connect automatic pin it will try to connect to network with its designed algorithm, and will take maximum 1 minute to show you the results.

If you do not get success with this method I mean app then there is a second app which is more powerful than this one and can also try to hack WPS protected networks.

Heartbleed – Best Hacking Technique 2014

The Heartbleed Bug is a serious vulnerability in the popular OpenSSL cryptographic software library. This weakness allows stealing the information protected, under normal conditions, by the SSL/TLS encryption used to secure the Internet. SSL/TLS provides communication security and privacy over the Internet for applications such as web, email, instant messaging (IM) and some virtual private networks (VPNs).

The Heartbleed bug allows anyone on the Internet to read the memory of the systems protected by the vulnerable versions of the OpenSSL software. This compromises the secret keys used to identify the service providers and to encrypt the traffic, the names and passwords of the users and the actual content. This allows attackers to eavesdrop on communications, steal data directly from the services and users and to impersonate services and users.

What leaks in practice?

We have tested some of our own services from attacker’s perspective. We attacked ourselves from outside, without leaving a trace. Without using any privileged information or credentials we were able steal from ourselves the secret keys used for our X.509 certificates, user names and passwords, instant messages, emails and business critical documents and communication.

How to stop the leak?

As long as the vulnerable version of OpenSSL is in use it can be abused. Fixed OpenSSL has been released and now it has to be deployed. Operating system vendors and distribution, appliance vendors, independent software vendors have to adopt the fix and notify their users. Service providers and users have to install the fix as it becomes available for the operating systems, networked appliances and software they use.


Q&A

WHAT IS THE CVE-2014-0160?

CVE-2014-0160 is the official reference to this bug. CVE (Common Vulnerabilities and Exposures) is the Standard for Information Security Vulnerability Names maintained by MITRE. Due to co-incident discovery a duplicate CVE, CVE-2014-0346, which was assigned to us, should not be used, since others independently went public with the CVE-2014-0160 identifier.

WHY IT IS CALLED THE HEARTBLEED BUG?

Bug is in the OpenSSL’s implementation of the TLS/DTLS (transport layer security protocols) heartbeat extension (RFC6520). When it is exploited it leads to the leak of memory contents from the server to the client and from the client to the server.

WHAT MAKES THE HEARTBLEED BUG UNIQUE?

Bugs in single software or library come and go and are fixed by new versions. However this bug has left large amount of private keys and other secrets exposed to the Internet. Considering the long exposure, ease of exploitation and attacks leaving no trace this exposure should be taken seriously.

IS THIS A DESIGN FLAW IN SSL/TLS PROTOCOL SPECIFICATION?

No. This is implementation problem, i.e. programming mistake in popular OpenSSL library that provides cryptographic services such as SSL/TLS to the applications and services.

WHAT IS BEING LEAKED?

Encryption is used to protect secrets that may harm your privacy or security if they leak. In order to coordinate recovery from this bug we have classified the compromised secrets to four categories: 1) primary key material, 2) secondary key material and 3) protected content and 4) collateral.

WHAT IS LEAKED PRIMARY KEY MATERIAL AND HOW TO RECOVER?

These are the crown jewels, the encryption keys themselves. Leaked secret keys allow the attacker to decrypt any past and future traffic to the protected services and to impersonate the service at will. Any protection given by the encryption and the signatures in the X.509 certificates can be bypassed. Recovery from this leak requires patching the vulnerability, revocation of the compromised keys and reissuing and redistributing new keys. Even doing all this will still leave any traffic intercepted by the attacker in the past still vulnerable to decryption. All this has to be done by the owners of the services.

WHAT IS LEAKED SECONDARY KEY MATERIAL AND HOW TO RECOVER?

These are for example the user credentials (user names and passwords) used in the vulnerable services. Recovery from this leak requires owners of the service first to restore trust to the service according to steps described above. After this users can start changing their passwords and possible encryption keys according to the instructions from the owners of the services that have been compromised. All session keys and session cookies should be invalidated and considered compromised.

WHAT IS LEAKED PROTECTED CONTENT AND HOW TO RECOVER?

This is the actual content handled by the vulnerable services. It may be personal or financial details, private communication such as emails or instant messages, documents or anything seen worth protecting by encryption. Only owners of the services will be able to estimate the likelihood what has been leaked and they should notify their users accordingly. Most important thing is to restore trust to the primary and secondary key material as described above. Only this enables safe use of the compromised services in the future.

WHAT IS LEAKED COLLATERAL AND HOW TO RECOVER?

Leaked collateral are other details that have been exposed to the attacker in the leaked memory content. These may contain technical details such as memory addresses and security measures such as canaries used to protect against overflow attacks. These have only contemporary value and will lose their value to the attacker when OpenSSL has been upgraded to a fixed version.

RECOVERY SOUNDS LABORIOUS, IS THERE A SHORT CUT?

After seeing what we saw by “attacking” ourselves, with ease, we decided to take this very seriously. We have gone laboriously through patching our own critical services and are dealing with possible compromise of our primary and secondary key material. All this just in case we were not first ones to discover this and this could have been exploited in the wild already.

HOW REVOCATION AND REISSUING OF CERTIFICATES WORKS IN PRACTICE?

If you are a service provider you have signed your certificates with a Certificate Authority (CA). You need to check your CA how compromised keys can be revoked and new certificate reissued for the new keys. Some CAs do this for free, some may take a fee.

AM I AFFECTED BY THE BUG?

You are likely to be affected either directly or indirectly. OpenSSL is the most popular open source cryptographic library and TLS (transport layer security) implementation used to encrypt traffic on the Internet. Your popular social site, your company’s site, commerce site, hobby site, site you install software from or even sites run by your government might be using vulnerable OpenSSL. Many of online services use TLS to both to identify themselves to you and to protect your privacy and transactions. You might have networked appliances with logins secured by this buggy implementation of the TLS. Furthermore you might have client side software on your computer that could expose the data from your computer if you connect to compromised services.

HOW WIDESPREAD IS THIS?

The most notable software using OpenSSL are the open source web servers like Apache and nginx. The combined market share of just those two out of the active sites on the Internet was over 66% according toNetcraft’s April 2014 Web Server Survey. Furthermore OpenSSL is used to protect for example email servers (SMTP, POP and IMAP protocols), chat servers (XMPP protocol), virtual private networks (SSL VPNs), network appliances and wide variety of client side software. Fortunately many large consumer sites are saved by their conservative choice of SSL/TLS termination equipment and software. Ironically smaller and more progressive services or those who have upgraded to latest and best encryption will be affected most. Furthermore OpenSSL is very popular in client software and somewhat popular in networked appliances which have most inertia in getting updates.

WHAT VERSIONS OF THE OPENSSL ARE AFFECTED?

Status of different versions:

  • OpenSSL 1.0.1 through 1.0.1f (inclusive) are vulnerable
  • OpenSSL 1.0.1g is NOT vulnerable
  • OpenSSL 1.0.0 branch is NOT vulnerable
  • OpenSSL 0.9.8 branch is NOT vulnerable

Bug was introduced to OpenSSL in December 2011 and has been out in the wild since OpenSSL release 1.0.1 on 14th of March 2012. OpenSSL 1.0.1g released on 7th of April 2014 fixes the bug.

HOW COMMON ARE THE VULNERABLE OPENSSL VERSIONS?

The vulnerable versions have been out there for over two years now and they have been rapidly adopted by modern operating systems. A major contributing factor has been that TLS versions 1.1 and 1.2 came available with the first vulnerable OpenSSL version (1.0.1) and security community has been pushing the TLS 1.2 due to earlier attacks against TLS (such as the BEAST).

HOW ABOUT OPERATING SYSTEMS?

Some operating system distributions that have shipped with potentially vulnerable OpenSSL version:

  • Debian Wheezy (stable), OpenSSL 1.0.1e-2+deb7u4
  • Ubuntu 12.04.4 LTS, OpenSSL 1.0.1-4ubuntu5.11
  • CentOS 6.5, OpenSSL 1.0.1e-15
  • Fedora 18, OpenSSL 1.0.1e-4
  • OpenBSD 5.3 (OpenSSL 1.0.1c 10 May 2012) and 5.4 (OpenSSL 1.0.1c 10 May 2012)
  • FreeBSD 10.0 – OpenSSL 1.0.1e 11 Feb 2013
  • NetBSD 5.0.2 (OpenSSL 1.0.1e)
  • OpenSUSE 12.2 (OpenSSL 1.0.1c)

Operating system distribution with versions that are not vulnerable:

  • Debian Squeeze (oldstable), OpenSSL 0.9.8o-4squeeze14
  • SUSE Linux Enterprise Server
  • FreeBSD 8.4 – OpenSSL 0.9.8y 5 Feb 2013
  • FreeBSD 9.2 – OpenSSL 0.9.8y 5 Feb 2013
  • FreeBSD 10.0p1 – OpenSSL 1.0.1g (At 8 Apr 18:27:46 2014 UTC)
  • FreeBSD Ports – OpenSSL 1.0.1g (At 7 Apr 21:46:40 2014 UTC)

HOW CAN OPENSSL BE FIXED?

Even though the actual code fix may appear trivial, OpenSSL team is the expert in fixing it properly so fixed version 1.0.1g or newer should be used. If this is not possible software developers can recompile OpenSSL with the handshake removed from the code by compile time option -DOPENSSL_NO_HEARTBEATS.

SHOULD HEARTBEAT BE REMOVED TO AID IN DETECTION OF VULNERABLE SERVICES?

Recovery from this bug might have benefitted if the new version of the OpenSSL would both have fixed the bug and disabled heartbeat temporarily until some future version. Majority, if not almost all, of TLS implementations that responded to the heartbeat request at the time of discovery were vulnerable versions of OpenSSL. If only vulnerable versions of OpenSSL would have continued to respond to the heartbeat for next few months then large scale coordinated response to reach owners of vulnerable services would become more feasible. However, swift response by the Internet community in developing online and standalone detection tools quickly surpassed the need for removing heartbeat altogether.

CAN I DETECT IF SOMEONE HAS EXPLOITED THIS AGAINST ME?

Exploitation of this bug does not leave any trace of anything abnormal happening to the logs.

CAN IDS/IPS DETECT OR BLOCK THIS ATTACK?

Although the heartbeat can appear in different phases of the connection setup, intrusion detection and prevention systems (IDS/IPS) rules to detect heartbeat have been developed. Due to encryption differentiating between legitimate use and attack cannot be based on the content of the request, but the attack may be detected by comparing the size of the request against the size of the reply. This implies that IDS/IPS can be programmed to detect the attack but not to block it unless heartbeat requests are blocked altogether.

HAS THIS BEEN ABUSED IN THE WILD?

We don’t know. Security community should deploy TLS/DTLS honeypots that entrap attackers and to alert about exploitation attempts.

CAN ATTACKER ACCESS ONLY 64K OF THE MEMORY?

There is no total of 64 kilobytes limitation to the attack, that limit applies only to a single heartbeat. Attacker can either keep reconnecting or during an active TLS connection keep requesting arbitrary number of 64 kilobyte chunks of memory content until enough secrets are revealed.

IS THIS A MITM BUG LIKE APPLE’S GOTO FAIL BUG WAS?

No, this does not require a man in the middle attack (MITM). Attacker can directly contact the vulnerable service or attack any user connecting to a malicious service. However in addition to direct threat the theft of the key material allows man in the middle attackers to impersonate compromised services.

DOES TLS CLIENT CERTIFICATE AUTHENTICATION MITIGATE THIS?

No, heartbeat request can be sent and is replied to during the handshake phase of the protocol. This occurs prior to client certificate authentication.

DOES OPENSSL’S FIPS MODE MITIGATE THIS?

No, OpenSSL Federal Information Processing Standard (FIPS) mode has no effect on the vulnerable heartbeat functionality.

DOES PERFECT FORWARD SECRECY (PFS) MITIGATE THIS?

Use of Perfect Forward Secrecy (PFS), which is unfortunately rare but powerful, should protect past communications from retrospective decryption. Please seehttps://twitter.com/ivanristic/status/453280081897467905 how leaked tickets may affect this.

CAN HEARTBEAT EXTENSION BE DISABLED DURING THE TLS HANDSHAKE?

No, vulnerable heartbeat extension code is activated regardless of the results of the handshake phase negotiations. Only way to protect yourself is to upgrade to fixed version of OpenSSL or to recompile OpenSSL with the handshake removed from the code.

WHO FOUND THE HEARTBLEED BUG?

This bug was independently discovered by a team of security engineers (Riku, Antti and Matti) at Codenomiconand Neel Mehta of Google Security, who first reported it to the OpenSSL team. Codenomicon team found heartbleed bug while improving the SafeGuard feature in Codenomicon’s Defensics security testing tools and reported this bug to the NCSC-FI for vulnerability coordination and reporting to OpenSSL team.

WHAT IS THE DEFENSICS SAFEGUARD?

The SafeGuard feature of the Codenomicon’s Defensics security testtools automatically tests the target system for weaknesses that compromise the integrity, privacy or safety. The SafeGuard is systematic solution to expose failed cryptographic certificate checks, privacy leaks or authentication bypass weaknesses that have exposed the Internet users to man in the middle attacks and eavesdropping. In addition to the Heartbleed bug the new Defensics TLS Safeguard feature can detect for instance the exploitable security flaw in widely used GnuTLS open source software implementing SSL/TLS functionality and the “goto fail;” bug in Apple’s TLS/SSL implementation that was patched in February 2014.

WHO COORDINATES RESPONSE TO THIS VULNERABILITY?

Immediately after our discovery of the bug on 3rd of April 2014, NCSC-FI took up the task of verifying it, analyzing it further and reaching out to the authors of OpenSSL, software, operating system and appliance vendors, which were potentially affected. However, this vulnerability had been found and details released independently by others before this work was completed. Vendors should be notifying their users and service providers. Internet service providers should be notifying their end users where and when potential action is required.

IS THERE A BRIGHT SIDE TO ALL THIS?

For those service providers who are affected this is a good opportunity to upgrade security strength of the secret keys used. A lot of software gets updates which otherwise would have not been urgent. Although this is painful for the security community, we can rest assured that infrastructure of the cyber criminals and their secrets have been exposed as well.

WHAT CAN BE DONE TO PREVENT THIS FROM HAPPENING IN FUTURE?

The security community, we included, must learn to find these inevitable human mistakes sooner. Please support the development effort of software you trust your privacy to. Donate money to the OpenSSL project.

WHERE TO FIND MORE INFORMATION?

This Q&A was published as a follow-up to the OpenSSL advisory, since this vulnerability became public on 7th of April 2014. The OpenSSL project has made a statement athttps://www.openssl.org/news/secadv_20140407.txt. NCSC-FI published an advisory athttps://www.cert.fi/en/reports/2014/vulnerability788210.html. Individual vendors of operating system distributions, affected owners of Internet services, software packages and appliance vendors may issue their own advisories.

REFERENCES

LaZagne – Password Recovery Tool For Windows & Linux

The LaZagne project is an open source password recovery tool used to retrieve passwords stored on a local computer. Each software stores its passwords using different techniques (plaintext, APIs, custom algorithms, databases and so on). This tool has been developed for the purpose of finding these passwords for the most commonly-used software. At this moment, it supports 22 Programs on Microsoft Windows and 12 on a Linux/Unix-Like operating systems.

LaZagne - Password Recovery Tool For Windows & Linux

It supports a whole bunch of software including things like CoreFTP, Cyberduck, FileZilla, PuttyCM, WinSCP, Chrome, Firefox, IE, Opera, Jitsi, Pidgin, Outlook, Thunderbird, Tortoise, Wifi passwords and more.

Usage

Retrieve version

Launch all modules

Launch only a specific module

Launch only a specific software script

Write all passwords found into a file (-w options)

Use a file for dictionary attacks (used only when it’s necessary: mozilla masterpassword, system hahes, etc.). The file has to be a wordlist in cleartext (no rainbow), it has not been optimized to be fast but could useful for basic passwords.

Change verbosity mode (2 different levels)

You can download laZagne here:

Windows – laZagne-Windows.zip
Source – Source-1.1.zip

Elevating privileges by exploiting weak folder permissions

Securing machines is always an on-going process whether it is by locking down settings, blocking applications, disabling Windows Services, making sure user privileges are kept to a minimum and so on. If we don’t then users will end up installing non-standard software, making changes to the system, malware doing more damage once getting compromised, etc. This post is about weaknesses in folder permissions leading to elevation of privilege by using DLL hijacking vulnerabilities in Windows Services.

What is DLL hijacking?
A few years ago there was quite a bit of hype being able to load malicious DLLs remotely or locally from the current working directory. The Microsoft article [1] explains it clearly

“When an application dynamically loads a dynamic-link library without specifying a fully qualified path name, Windows attempts to locate the DLL by searching a well-defined set of directories in a particular order. If an attacker gains control of one of the directories on the DLL search path, it can place a malicious copy of the DLL in that directory. This is sometimes called a DLL preloading attack or a binary planting attack. If the system does not find a legitimate copy of the DLL before it searches the compromised directory, it loads the malicious DLL. If the application is running with administrator privileges, the attacker may succeed in local privilege elevation.”

So if an application loads a DLL just by its name it goes through the search order below (32bit OS) to find the library

  1. The directory from which the application loaded
  2. 32-bit System directory (C:\Windows\System32)
  3. 16-bit System directory (C:\Windows\System)
  4. Windows directory (C:\Windows)
  5. The current working directory (CWD)
  6. Directories in the PATH environment variable (system then user)

What are we exploiting?
The goal here is to get local admin rights on the machine. In order to achieve this we need three things to make this work

  • Windows DLL search order
  • DLL hijacking vulnerability
  • Weak folder permissions

Windows DLL search order
In Windows DLL search order the directories of the path environment variable are the last search it carries out starting with the system variable path and then the user variable path. Unless the application hasn’t used a fully qualified path name for its DLL it will try to find the DLL through the search order even with certain mitigations in place.

DLL hijacking vulnerability
A quick way to find DLL hijacking vulnerabilities is to start Process Monitor, setup the relevant filtering and carry out some actions. Here we will be exploiting Windows Services as a large number of services run on SYSTEM privileges, just by stopping and starting the services and observing the search patterns. Keep in mind that Services running under SYSTEM does not search through user path environment. After stopping and starting Services a number of vulnerabilities had been discovered.

One Windows Service being the “IKE and AuthIP IPsec Keying Modules” This service is not started and set to manual by default but might be started or set to Automatic by VPN clients, policies, other Services, etc. For someone trying to obtain local admin rights starting Process Monitor will not be possible with limited permissions so let’s go through the steps if we didn’t have rights. In this example the IKE service is used but it can be any service for software that you may not have direct access to and need to audit.

First let’s take note of the service executable through Windows Services (say services.msc via run command) checking to see if its status has started and running under localsystem.

Now checking in the registry to see if there are any service dlls being loaded by the service

We can copy these files (svchost.exe and IKEEXT.DLL) off to another machine to do our static analysis. After loading in IDA and simply searching for loadlibrary and jumping to the call will show what library is going to load. If a fully qualified path is not specified then we may be in luck. Here in IKEEXT.DLL LoadLibraryW will try to load “wlbsctrl.dll”

Note: It is not always as straight forward as in this example as the dll called might be using fully qualified path name but linked at compile time with another dll which will try to load this at load time which might be vulnerable due to being in another folder or not available.

Lastly we search for the library wlbsctrl.dll on the system to see if it exists and if so take note as to where it is located.

C:\>dir wlbsctrl.dll /s

In this case wlbsctrl.dll does not exist on the system so it will go through the entire search order.

Weak folder permissions
Now for the most important part “Weak folder permissions”. When new folders are created in the root it is writeable for all authenticated users by default. The “NT AUTHORITY\Authenticated Users:(I)(M)” gets added to the folder where M stands for modify access. So any application that gets installed on the root can be tampered with by a non-admin user. If binaries load with SYSTEM privileges from this folder it might just be a matter of replacing the binary with your own one.

It gets interesting when applications gets installed in the root and add its path to the system path environment. This now opens the attack surface for a large number of applications that may have DLL hijacking vulnerabilities. One scenario is software getting pushed onto machines, with the likes of Marimba, Landesk, etc. which use a Windows service running with system privileges to install the software. Since it runs with system privileges software pushed onto machines such as Perl, Python or Ruby it will add to the system path environment if adding the path had been set in the package along with being installed on the root as default. Or it could be an IT support personnel installs the software with their admin rights for the user. If a user installs manually (if possible) with non-admin rights then it may be added to user path environment and then exploitation would not be possible. We can use icacls.exe to check the permissions of the folder or by the folder properties security tab.

Pwning the box
From our previous sections what we know now are

  • Service “IKE and AuthIP IPsec Keying Modules” loads service dll IKEEXT.DLL
  • IKEEXT.DLL will try to load wlbsctrl.dll
  • OS with carry its search order to find wlbsctrl.dll
  • We have a writeable folder C:\Ruby200\bin which is in the search order

All we need to do now is drop our malicious crafted DLL wlbsctrl.dll in C:\Ruby200\bin, reboot the machine and it will carry out its action under SYSTEM privileges. Users requesting Ruby, Perl, etc. are probably developers and have rights anyway but there may be other software which gets installed on the root and adds to the system path where limited users might take advantage of and this where we need to do our assessment and make any changes before being deployed.

Testing folder paths
System path environment variable comes first and then user path environment variable. Running it in a medium integrity shell for an admin or non-admin user will give the same results.

Vulnerable Windows Services
Here are Windows Services that have been found to be vulnerable and could be exploited on Windows 7 (32/64)

IKE and AuthIP IPsec Keying Modules (IKEEXT)                     – wlbsctrl.dll
Windows Media Center Receiver Service (ehRecvr)               – ehETW.dll
Windows Media Center Scheduler Service (ehSched)             – ehETW.dll

The Windows Media Center Services startup type is set to manual and status not started and will only give us only Network service privileges so I cannot see it to being much use especially with its limited privileges. It can however be started temporarily via certain scheduled tasks.

schtasks.exe /run /I /TN “\Microsoft\Windows\Media Center\mcupdate”
schtasks.exe /run /I /TN “\Microsoft\Windows\Media Center\MediaCenterRecoveryTask”
schtasks.exe /run /I /TN “\Microsoft\Windows\Media Center\ActivateWindowsSearch”

A quick check on Windows XP has shown that these Services are vulnerable

Automatic Updates (wuauserv)                                                – ifsproxy.dll
Remote Desktop Help Session Manager (RDSessMgr)            – SalemHook.dll
Remote Access Connection Manager (RasMan)                      – ipbootp.dll
Windows Management Instrumentation (winmgmt)                 – wbemcore.dll

Other Services that might be installed are also vulnerable

Audio Service (STacSV)                                                    – SFFXComm.dll SFCOM.DLL
Intel(R) Rapid Storage Technology (IAStorDataMgrSvc)    – DriverSim.dll
Juniper Unified Network Service(JuniperAccessService)   – dsLogService.dll
Encase Enterprise Agent                                                    – SDDisk.dll

No dll hijacking vulnerabilities were found on a clean default installation of Windows 8 OS (64) so another good reason to start migrating to Windows 8.

Mitigation
There are a number of mitigations available to prevent this vulnerability to be exploited by using certain API’s, changing registry settings, applying updates, etc. it does start to get confusing as to what we are mitigating so hopefully this section will make it a bit clearer.

CWDIllegalInDllSearch
This update [2] at the time introduced a new registry entry CWDIllegalInDllSearch that allowed users to control the DLL search path algorithm. Tested on a fully patched Windows 7 machine this update is no longer required so it might have been later included in some security update. Once the patch is installed (if applicable) you will need to add the DWORD name CWDIllegalInDllSearch with a value in the registry key location

[HKEY_LOCAL_MACHINE\SYSTEM\CurrentControlSet\Control\Session Manager]

The value data can be 1, 2 or ffffffff. If the value name CWDIllegalInDllSearch does not exist or the value data is 0 then the machine will still be vulnerable to CWD attack. Please be aware that the value ffffffff could break certain applications. The search order is the same but this time if a malicious DLL is located in the current working directory the library is not loaded.

  1. The directory from which the application loaded
  2. 32-bit System directory (C:\Windows\System32)
  3. 16-bit System directory (C:\Windows\System)
  4. Windows directory (C:\Windows)
  5. The current working directory (CWD)            [ dlls not loaded ]
  6. Directories in the PATH environment variable (system then user)

 

SetDllDirectory
This function [3] removes the current working directory (CWD) from the search order when loading DLLs. For instance, the DLL search order after calling SetDllDirectory(“C:\\program files\\MyApp\\”) becomes:

  1. The directory from which the application loaded
  2. C:\program files\MyApp\                                    [ added ]
  3. 32-bit System directory (C:\Windows\System32)
  4. 16-bit System directory (C:\Windows\System)
  5. Windows directory (C:\Windows)
  6. The current working directory (CWD)              [ removed ]
  7. Directories in the PATH environment variable (system then user)

Passing an empty string to SetDllDirectory(“”) the current working directory (CWD) is removed from the search order

  1. The directory from which the application loaded
  2. 32-bit System directory (C:\Windows\System32)
  3. 16-bit System directory (C:\Windows\System)
  4. Windows directory (C:\Windows)
  5. The current working directory (CWD)             [ removed ]
  6. Directories in the PATH environment variable (system then user)

If this parameter is NULL, the function restores the default search order.

SafeDllSearchMode
Safe DLL search mode [4] is enabled by default. To disable this feature we can create a DWORD name SafeDllSearchMode with value 0

[HKEY_LOCAL_MACHINE\SYSTEM\CurrentControlSet\Control\Session Manager]

If SafeDllSearchMode is enabled, the search order is as follows:

  1. The directory from which the application loaded
  2. 32-bit System directory (C:\Windows\System32)
  3. 16-bit System directory (C:\Windows\System)
  4. Windows directory (C:\Windows)
  5. The current working directory (CWD)
  6. Directories in the PATH environment variable (system then user)

If SafeDllSearchMode is disabled, the search order is as follows:

  1. The directory from which the application loaded
  2. The current working directory (CWD)                   [ moved up the list ]
  3. 32-bit System directory (C:\Windows\System32)
  4. 16-bit System directory (C:\Windows\System)
  5. Windows directory (C:\Windows)
  6. Directories in the PATH environment variable (system then user)

Calling the SetDllDirectory(“”) or SetDllDirectory(“C:\\program files\\MyApp\\”) disables SafeDllSearchMode and uses the search order described for SetDllDirectory.

LoadLibraryEx function [5] takes another argument where a flag can be set to change the search order but I didnt get round to test it.

Mitigation for developers
For software developers there are a number of actions they can take

  • Use SetEnvironmentVariable(TEXT(“PATH”),NULL) API which removes the path environment variable from its search order
  • Change default installation folder to C:\Program Files
  • Use fully qualified path when loading DLLs, i.e. LoadLibrary(“C:\\program files\\MyApp\\mylibrary.dll”);
  • Use SetDllDirectory(“”) API removing the current working directory from the search order

Mitigation for IT professionals
For IT support professionals there are also a number of actions that can be taken

  • When packaging and deploying software via deployment tools such as Marimba, Landesk, etc. or manually  installing software change the installation folder to C:\Program Files
  • If software needs to be installed on the root check there are no binaries needing SYSTEM privileges
  • If SYSTEM privileges are required then change the ACL’s of the folder
  • Remove the path entry from the SYSTEM path variable if not needed

Conclusion
This post shows us how easily elevated privileges can be achieved with very little effort. Ultimately the solution is simple by just making sure all software gets installed in the C:\Program Files folder which will then inherent it’s more secure folder permissions. Malware could take advantage of this weakness not only to obtain system privileges but also to automatically load its malware making it that much harder to pinpoint its auto start entry points.

 

References
[1] http://msdn.microsoft.com/en-us/library/windows/desktop/ff919712(v=vs.85).aspx
[2] http://support.microsoft.com/kb/2264107
[3] http://msdn.microsoft.com/en-us/library/ms686203%28v=vs.85%29.aspx
[4] http://msdn.microsoft.com/en-us/library/ms682586%28v=vs.85%29.aspx
[5] http://msdn.microsoft.com/en-us/library/ms684179%28v=vs.85%29.aspx

How to Set up Multiple IP Addresses on – Windows

There are several ways to set up multiple IP addresses on a computer:

1. To have multiple network interface cards (NICs) on your computer and to assign a different IP address to each card.
2. To assign multiple IP addresses to a single NIC.
3. To combine 2 previous options: have multiple NICs with multiple IPs assigned to one or more of them.

By default, each network interface card (NIC) has its own unique IP address. However, you can assign multiple IP addresses to a single NIC.

How to assign multiple IP addresses to the same NIC

 

If you want to assign more than one IP address to a network card on Windows Vista, follow the steps below.

1. Choose Settings -> Network Connections on the Windows Start menu.
2. Right-click on the Local Area Connection, choose Properties.

3. Highlight Internet Protocol (TCP/IP), click Properties.

4. If you use DHCP, you should disable it: click Use the following IP address and enter IP address, Subnet mask and Default gateway.
5. Click Advanced… at the bottom.

6. Enter additional IP addresses: click the Add… button and enter a new IP address and Subnet mask.

If you use Windows XP, the whole procedure will be the same, except for the first steps:

Right-click on My Network Places, choose Properties.
Right-click on the Local Area Connection, choose Properties.

​How to secure Windows 10: The paranoid’s guide

That said, I think some people’s fears about Microsoft looking over your shoulder are over-the-top. And, I speak as someone who looks at Microsoft with a great deal of suspicion.

WINDOWS 10

What you need to realize is that Microsoft has made Windows 10 both a desktop and a cloud operating system. Adding cloud functionality means that when you run Windows 10 you’ll be sharing far more information with Microsoft and its partner customers than ever before.

For example, while Windows 10 doesn’t have a keylogger itdoes collect your keystrokes and voice to improve spell-checking and voice recognition. Before having a fit about this, keep in mind that every cloud-based software-as-a-service (SaaS) program does this to one degree or another. Google Docs, Apple’s Siri, Office 365, whatever — they all collect not just your final words but every keystroke and spoken syllable that went into making those words.

It’s another case with Wi-Fi Sense. You don’t need to be afraid that Wi-FI Sense will let any of your Skype, Outlook, or Hotmail contacts use your Wi-Fi network without your permission. Yes, Wi-Fi Sense is on by default, but take a closer look. It doesn’t permit anyone to use any of your Wi-FI networks without your specific permission.

LOCKING DOWN WINDOWS 10

Still don’t trust these new “features?” I can’t blame you. This is not the Windows you’ve known and used for years. This is a Windows that exists both on your PC and in Microsoft’s cloud. Here’s how to lock down Windows 10 and make it more of a PC-centric operating system.

First, head to Settings/Privacy. There you will find no fewer than 13–count ’em, 13–different privacy settings screens. The major settings are under the ‘General’ screen. The other screens are concerned with which apps can and can’t access your calendar, camera, messages, microphone and so on.

On the General screen, you’ll see your Advertising ID. This is your unique ID number. Think of it as being like a web cookie and you won’t be far wrong. It’s used to identify you to Windows apps advertisers. So, for instance, if you’re a big Dallas Cowboy fan, you can count on seeing ads for Cowboys gear. Microsoft claims it doesn’t link this ID with your name, email address, or other personal information.

If you’re still concerned about keylogging, head to Privacy/Speech, inking & typing. Think long and hard about whether to use Microsoft’s “Getting to know me” improvements. Steve Hoffenberg, VDC Research‘s Director of IoT & Embedded Technology worries, for instance, that these Windows 10’s “features” violate Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act (HIPAA) privacy requirements. If his fears are valid, this means medical offices and health insurance companies should turn off this Windows 10 setting.

I doubt he’s right, but I’m no lawyer. Even so, were I working with transactions that fall underSarbanes- Oxley (SOX), Gramm-Leach-Bliley (GLB), or HIPAA, I’d turn off this feature, and its related setting, “Windows 10 Input Personalization.” Better safe than sorry.

Be aware, however, that if you turn off the “Getting to know me,” this will also disable both dictation and Windows 10’s voice-activated assistant Cortana,

Next, you’ll want to use “Manage my Microsoft advertising and other personalization info” to decide on whether you want advertisers to show you ads based on your browsing history and interests. Better still, skip that page and head directly to Microsoft personalized ad preferences and opt out of everything. Advertisers already know far too much about me as it is.

If you rely on using OneDrive in the cloud, where it belongs, Windows 10 isn’t ready for you.

  • h each setting even if you don’t think they’ll matter. By default, each and every privacy setting is set to give Microsoft and friends the maximum possible access. This is not a good thing.

Moving on: Head to the Location settings and turn them off. While your PC probably doesn’t have a GPS like your smartphone, you’d be amazed at how accurately your location can be pinned down using Wi-Fi access points and IP address. I’ve never been comfortable with letting anyone track me and I turn location off on every device I own except when I need GPS directions.

If you turn off location services, though, you won’t be able to fully use Cortana. That’s annoying because Cortana is one of Windows 10’s best features. It’s helpful to just ask your computer a question and get useful, personalized answers. But like its older relatives, Siri and Google Now, for Cortana to show to its best advantage it needs access to an enormous amount of personal data. For instance, Cortana must have locations services on. Cortana also watches pretty much everything you write, say and do on your PC. For example, it keeps track of your flights by detecting “tracking info, such as flights, in messages on my device.”

That’s both incredibly handy and incredibly creepy. If you find it more disturbing than useful, head to Cortana’s settings, under Cortana and Search, and turn off everything there that doesn’t pass the smell test. Cortana will be less useful, but you’ll get more privacy.

Still not private enough for you? Then don’t use Windows 10, Chrome OS, iOS, Android, or any other system that’s tied closely into the cloud. Instead, use Linux as your desktop operating system. By default, Linux is the only mainstream operating system that still relies primarily on true desktop apps.

Not ready for such a radical move? Well, actually, it’s not that radical. If you can use Windows, trust me, you can use Linux distributions such as Ubuntu 15.04 or Mint 17.2.

Otherwise, get busy locking down Windows 10. Good luck.