Category Archives: (L) Android

AndBug — A Scriptable Android Debugger For Android

AndBug is a debugger targeting the Android platform’s Dalvik virtual machine intended for reverse engineers and developers. It uses the same interfaces as Android’s Eclipse debugging plugin, the Java Debug Wire Protocol (JDWP) and Dalvik Debug Monitor (DDM) to permit users to hook Dalvik methods, examine process state, and even perform changes.

Unlike Google’s own Android Software Development Kit debugging tools, AndBug does not require or expect source code. It does, however, require that you have some level of comfort with Python, as it uses a concept of scripted breakpoints, called “hooks”, for most nontrivial tasks. (If you just want to dump loaded classes, methods, or threads, there are example scripts for that.)



AndBug is very much a program in flux, as I seperate one-off scripts I have written at IOActive for various tasks from customer and IOActive-proprietary contexts. I do not recommend installation at this time, as you will want to update it frequently afterwards. AndBug runs very nicely from its own source directory with very little setup.

  1. Install the Android Software Development Kit from
  2. Ensure the Android Debugging Bridge is in your $PATH and usable.

    which adb adb devices

  3. Ensure you have a good Python and GNU toolchain for your platform. You will need GCC, and Make. You may also want Pyrex, if you want to make changes at the primitive layer.
  4. Pull the latest AndBug code from

    git clone

  5. Build using Make


  6. Adjust $PYTHONPATH

    export PYTHONPATH=`pwd`/lib


Examples can be found in the sample directory, but the easiest way to find prepackaged functionality in AndBug is using the “andbug” command directly.


This command does not currently have the intelligence to automatically detect when it is running from the source directory and update the PYTHONPATH on the fly to match. You will want to make sure that PYTHONPATH includes your andbug/lib directory.

Common Problems

Q: I get “Permission Denied” when trying to use AndBug, but “adb shell” works.

A: Your adbd is probably running as another user, blocking the effective use of ADB forward. Use “adb kill-server” then “adb start-server” with the correct effective user.

Q: I get “Shell Exception” when trying to use AndBug.

A: Verify that your ADB setup is working using “adb devices” — AndBug relies on ADB for a JDWP transport.

Q: Does AndBug work on Windows?

A: I think so; but since AndBug is unsupported software, you may experience less hand holding than Windows users are accustomed to. Patches are welcome.

Q: Does AndBug work on Mac OS X?

A: Yes, but see the snarkiness about Windows users. You didn’t find this in an app store..

Q: Navi gives me an RequestError 13.

A: You have resumed the process; Navi can only safely interact with suspended processes. Use “suspend” again.

Q: I get “EOF in read” when sending a commmand.

A: Ensure that no other debuggers are connected, such as DDMS.

How to use ROM Toolbox Pro

ROM toolbox Pro is an amazing Application that i have been using for the better part of a year now. In this time it hasn’t failed me once. If the asking price of 4.99$ Seems a little steep to you,That’s ok. While it may not be cheap for an application. It provides an Amazing set of features,and is well worth the cost. So what are those features?What makes them so Amazing?How do you use them?And just how helpful are they? Well let me tell you.

When you first open the application it brings you to this page which shows you a list of available features. As you can see the options to choose from are many so lets jump right in.
The App manager is where you will have the ability to make Backup’s of Your apps and Application data.This will save time and bandwidth after you flash a new ROM on your device. It’s simple. You can even set custom times for It to automatically backup any new applications or any new application versions. One of the most helpful features of the bunch is the ability to create flashable zips of Applications. currently I do this with only one application(because i can restore all the others from the toolbox anyways) Yup, you guessed it. The ROM Manager itself. This way i don’t need to go to Google play to download any applications at all when restoring my data. You also have the ability to backup your custom launcher settings should you use one. This makes for an even easier time setting up your tablet after flashing a ROM.

You have the option of performing specific tasks on applications. This can be incredibly useful when you need to do something like kill an app that’s misbehaving.


Certain Actions you can perform on applications could cause the app(s) to severely misbehave so make sure you know what you’re doing.

The next core feature of the manager is The ROM management part of the Application itself. It comes with the usual bells and whistles. For those of you who may not know what a Nandroid(ROM backup) is.You can think of it like a snapshot of your device. But instead of only capturing what is being displayed on the screen. It takes a snapshot of all your applications and data and stores it to your SD card. Why is this important? while should your device to throw itself into a boot loop or freeze on the boot logo. As long as you can still gain access to the Custom recovery. You can restore your device to it’s previous state(when that Nandroid was made.) This has helped me multiple times. It makes taking care of situations like a boot loop so much easier.

You also have the option to Flash a Custom recovery. However,i have not personally used this and advise you to only do this from a computer using the ADB interface. The ability to change your boot logo is fun,and depending on what you choose can provide a little bit of entertainment while your device is booting up.


Be careful of what you do with this part of the application. You can cause your device to soft brick if you’re not careful. So please be sure of what you’re doing. This application is great..but it can’t stop you from making a stupid mistake. So please be careful.

The next part of the application is the root browser. This works just as you would expect. It allows you to access files and folders that you otherwise wouldn’t be able to. Such as system applications. Certain applications however,you should not delete. As they are critical to device functionality. if you delete these apps your device may malfunction. So once again be sure of what you’re doing.

Another useful feature that comes bundled in this wonderful application is the ability to download custom ROMs for your device. The list for my nexus 7 is extensive. You also can see comments on the latest build and see if it’s causing people problems before deciding to flash.So there you have it. All the reasons why ROM toolbox Pro is an amazing application. If you have any questions be sure to let me know,and i will do my best to answer them :D

How To Download Instagram Videos On Any Device

Download Instagram Videos On Any Device


A lot of apps used for downloading the instagram videos on your pc and mobile.


Download Instagram Videos On Android


Easily Download Instagram Videos on Android via Instagetter.Instagetter is the application which is used for downloading the videos and photos of public in easy way.It is best app for downloading and used by millions of users. Here is the Downloading Link Of Play store.



Instagetter For Android

Steps : –

1. Download the Instagetter app on android from above link.

2. Open the app after installation process,when app is successfully installed,then open the app instagtter.

3. After this open the video/photo which you want to download.

4. Now copy the url of that video/photo from clicking the right hand side menu option, a new screen appears “Copy Share Url” named text appears,tap on this to copy the url.

5. Now open the app and paste the url of that link in the app.

6. The application will check the url and processing for the valid video/photo.

7. After checking a small screen appears, Downloading window appears.

8. Now Click on the download button and enjoy the Download of instagram videos on Android.


Download Instagram Videos On iPhone


Easily Download Instagram Videos on iphone via instaGetter.This app is same as that of android instagetter.This app contains more features as compared to the app on android.This helps us to download the instagram videos/photos and moreover reposting of these also available.Multiple accounts supported in this.Here is the downloading Link :-

Download- InstaGetter For iPhone

Through this you can easily download instagram videos on iphone.

How You Can Get Nougat UI On Any Android Device

Here’s How You Can Get Nougat UI On Any Android Device

Well, we all know that Google had already started to roll out the developer preview images of Android O. However, Android Nougat is still missing from a majority of devices. Recently, Google rolled out the second beta version of Android 7.1.2 Nougat for Pixel and Nexus devices.

So, what about other smartphones running on Android Lollipop or Marshmallow? Well, it’s hard to say when you would receive the Nougat update. However, you can still enjoy some of the Nougat’s best features on your device.

Users can now enjoy Nougat UI on their Android smartphone without rooting their device. So, here we are going to discuss the method to get Nougat UI on any Android device.



Step 1. First of all, you need to download and install Nougat UI for Android Beta on your Android smartphone.


Step 2. After installing Nougat UI for Android beta on your device, you will see the screen like below. Here you need to tap on “Start”

Get Nougat UI On Any Android Device
Get Nougat UI On Any Android Device

Step 3. Now you will see the new home screen.

Get Nougat UI On Any Android Device
Get Nougat UI On Any Android Device

Step 4. Click on the settings and then Go to “Phone Status” it will show you Android 7.1.1.

Get Nougat UI On Any Android Device
Get Nougat UI On Any Android Device

Step 5. Simply swipe the screen from left to right to open the new settings panel.

Get Nougat UI On Any Android Device
Get Nougat UI On Any Android Device

What is Rooting of Android devices ?

We often here the term “rooting” of Android devices. Some people root their Android devices and often we hear malware roots a device and steals sensitive data. What is rooting actually ? Should we root an Android device ? Why do people root a device ? And, what are the security concerns of rooting a device ? Let’s understand that in more detail.

What is Rooting of an Android device ?

Android uses Linux kernel. And, all Unix based operating systems have the concept of “root” user, which has administrative privileges. By default, an Android user does not have administrative privileges on his Android device. Rooting is a technique which gives a user the administrative privileges on his device.

Why do users root an Android device ?


There are several purposes for which rooting is usually done.
  • Users often root an Android device with the purpose of overcoming limitations put by carriers or hardware manufacturers.
  • By default a user does not have administrative privileges on his Android device and so he cannot alter system applications and settings. Rooting gives the user administrative privileges, which enables the user to alter or replace these system applications and settings.
  • Rooting enables a user to run specialized applications that require administrative privileges on the device.
  • Users can even completely remove or replace the operating system of the device after rooting.
  • Rooting enables a user to remove pre-installed applications.
  • Rooting gives the user lower-level access to the hardware of the device. For example, it enables the user to control status lights or recalibrate touch screens.
  • Users often root an Android device to get better control of the Android device. For example, the user can change themes, icons or boot animations that appear while the device is booting. He can even overclock or underclock the CPU and the GPU or automate system level processes through third-party applications.
  • After rooting, users can even install custom firmware or custom ROM to get better control on the rooted device.

How do Android applications work actually & how does rooting make a device less secure ?

Android applications are written in java. The application code along with other required data and resource files are kept in an APK or an Android Package that a user uses to install the application on his device.
By default, an Android device may contain several sensitive data about the user like location, contacts, messages etc. So, Android needs to make sure an unauthorized application cannot access all the sensitive data unnecessarily or for malicious purpose. To ensure that, Android takes a couple of steps.
Android is a multiuser operating system. Each application on an Android device runs as a different user. When an application is installed on a device, it is given a unique user ID along with its own set of permissions. Moreover, each process has its own VM and an application runs in isolation from other applications. In other words, every application runs its own process in its own VM as a separate user, so that it cannot access data of other applications unnecessarily. However, two applications can communicate with each other using IPC to share data between them.
By default, an Android device can have three types of users :
  • Primary User – It is the first user added to the device. This user has more privileges than other users and can manage the settings. This user cannot be removed except by factory resets and is always running even when other users are in the foreground.
  • Secondary User – These are the other users added to the device. They can be removed easily by themselves or by the primary user and cannot impact other users on the device.
  • Guest User – An Android device can also have a guest user. It is basically a temporary user and the user along with its data are deleted immediately after its work is over. There can be only one guest user at a time.
So, how does rooting impact security of an Android device ? Malware often uses social engineering to deceive a user into running malicious programs. These malicious programs when by trickery is run by an innocent user get the same privileges that the user has. If the user is an administrative user, the malware will easily get administrative privileges on the device. And, if the user is a normal non-administrative user, the malware will only get non-administrative privileges, unless the malware uses some other vulnerabilities in the system that can escalate the privileges.
So, in other words, for a normal Android user, even if the device is infected by malware, the malware can have limited capabilities. But, if the device is rooted and the user has administrative privileges, the malware can easily exploit that to gain system level access on the device and cause more harms. It can steal all the sensitive data from the device easily or cause monetary losses.
Moreover, rooting a device voids warranty of an Android device. Google does not officially support a rooted device. Some Android applications even refuse to run on a rooted device. Applications often run an API called SafetyNet for that purpose. They perform this check before running on a device and refuse to run if the device is rooted. Android Pay is one such application which does that. There are quite a number of other applications which do that. Moreover, rooting can even brick a device if not done properly.

How to secure a rooted Android device ?

One should not root an Android device. And, if a user must, it is extremely important for the user to make sure the device remains secure.
  • If you rooted an Android device and now have changed your mind, you still can unroot a device. There are quite a number of tools available for that purpose.
  • On a rooted Android device, please make sure applications are installed only from official App Store. It is always good to review the permissions requested and the reputation of the developer before installing the application. If the application is unsafe, the damages will be much more for a rooted device.
  • Use your common sense while accessing the Internet using the device. Do not click on unsafe links, do not open attachments of emails sent by unknown sender and it is better not to browse unsafe websites.
  • Please make sure you configure proper Android Firewall. It is always advisable to prevent applications from accessing the network unnecessarily. This can prevent malware from installing on the device, as well as can prevent malware from exfiltrating sensitive data.
  • Use anti-malware programs from trusted sources and make sure you update them regularly.
  • Keep the device updated with recent patches of Android and other applications. More updated a device is, lesser are its known vulnerabilities.
  • Please make sure you backup your device often. This can help a lot in case the device is infected by malware like ransomware as well as when something goes wrong with the device.
  • Please be careful while accessing public WiFi. Please do not transfer any sensitive data while accessing a public WiFi and give no sensitive credentials and other information.
  • Please do not save any password of any online servicees or sites on the device.
  • Use Android in-built security like PINs, passwords, patterns or biometric locks. Please make sure you lock a device when it is not used.
  • There are some applications which hold lots of sensitive data. You can lock those applications separately as a second layer of security to prevent anyone from accessing the data even if he manages to unlock the device. There are quite a number of applications available for that purpose.
  • You can enable remote wipe on your Android device. This will prevent thieves from accessing the sensitive data even if they manage to steal the device.

How to enable Night Mode in Android Nougat

You have seen night mode apps only on desktop that changes your monitor screen’s temperature to reduce eye strain. f.lux an app that is used to reduce computer display at night works on Windows, Mac, and Linux, is also available on Android, but requires root to work fully.

In Android 7.0 Nougat, Google built-in Night Mode feature and here is how to enable it.


Step 1: Download and install Night Mode Enabler from Google Play Store.

Step 2: Pull down on your notification bar twice to open the Quick Settings menu

Step 3: Press and hold the little gear icon for about 10 seconds.


Now open Night Mode Enable app and tap Enable night mode button. This will bring you to the System UI Tuner entry for Night Mode, which is hidden by default. Here you have to click On to enable Night mode. Once you’ve done this, Night Mode option should be included in your Quick Settings title along with Bluetooth, Airplane mode and few others.

How To Temporarily Change Android MAC Address Without Rooting

MAC is the acronym for Media Access Control. Its address is a unique code made up of 12 (XX:XX:XX:XX:XX:XX) characters for a particular hardware like say the network adapter of WiFi devices.

There are many reasons for wanting to change the MAC address of your device. For instance, if you want to connect to a WiFi hotspot then it will be a good idea to change the MAC address temporarily. It will protect your privacy. Another very good reason to opt for this is to ensure smooth interoperability.

For instance, your internet service provider binds their service to a particular address and you want to change your network card or want to install a new router you will find that the service won’t work properly anymore. It may not even work at all. You can solve this problem by changing the MAC address of the new interface.

images (28)

You can of course change this address permanently or temporarily depending on your requirement. Usually you need a rooted phone to change the address but to change the address temporarily you can use a phone that is not rooted.

To temporarily change android MAC address without rooting the first thing you need is to know the MAC address. To find it on your tablet just touch the Menu key and go to Settings. Scroll down to About Tablet and there select Status. Just scroll down and view the address. If you are using an android phone you can do the same thing or alternatively on About Phone select Hardware Information and see the address. Another way is to select Wireless Network from Settings and there select WiFi settings and get the address from the Advanced section.

Next thing is to download a free app called the Android Terminal Emulator. Install it on your device. You need to know the name of your card to actually make the change. So open the app and type

ip link show

You will get a list of the different interfaces. On the list search for the address that matches the one that you found out earlier. Now to change it to the temporary address just type in the following commands:

ip link set AAAA address XX:XX:XX:YY:YY:YY

ip link set AAAA broadcast XX:XX:XX:YY:YY:YY.

Here AAAA is the name of the interface that you want to change and XX:XX:XX:YY:YY:YY is the new temporary address that you are assigning to the hardware. Remember that the address is made up of characters so it can be numbers or alphabets. Now to check whether the address has changed just type

ip link show AAAA

While denoting the new address it is important to keep in mind that only the last 3 sets should be changed. The first three sets should be kept same. If you change them you will face a lot of authentication issues.

As these changes are temporary whenever you reboot your device the MAC address will change back to the original address so you will have to repeat the above instructions again.

There are also some apps available on Google Playstore which supposedly help in temporarily changing the MAC address without rooting like the MAC changer app. All you have to do is follow the instructions given in the app.

Androguard – Reverse Engineering & Malware Analysis For Android

Androguard is a toolkit built in Python which provides reverse engineering and malware analysis for Android.

Androguard - Reverse Engineering & Malware Analysis For Android

It’s buyilt to examine * Dex/Odex (Dalvik virtual machine) (.dex) (disassemble, decompilation), * APK (Android application) (.apk), * Android’s binary xml (.xml) and * Android Resources (.arsc).

Androguard is available for Linux/OSX/Windows (Python powered).


  • Map and manipulate DEX/ODEX/APK/AXML/ARSC format into full Python objects
  • Diassemble/Decompilation/Modification of DEX/ODEX/APK format
  • Decompilation with the first native (directly from dalvik bytecodes to java source codes) dalvik decompiler (DAD)
  • Access to the static analysis of the code (basic blocks, instructions, permissions)
  • Analysis a bunch of android apps
  • Analysis with ipython/Sublime Text Editor
  • Diffing of android applications
  • Measure the efficiency of obfuscators (proguard, …)
  • Determine if your application has been pirated (plagiarism/similarities/rip-off indicator)
  • Check if an android application is present in a database (malwares, goodwares ?)
  • Open source database of android malware
  • Detection of ad/open source librairies (WIP)
  • Risk indicator of malicious application
  • Reverse engineering of applications (goodwares, malwares)
  • Transform Android’s binary xml (like AndroidManifest.xml) into classic xml
  • Visualize your application with gephi (gexf format), or with cytoscape (xgmml format), or PNG/DOT output
  • Integration with external decompilers (JAD+dex2jar/DED/fernflower/jd-gui…)

  • Usage

    Androguard has many different components, but the most commonly used one would be Androlyze:

Usage: [options]
  -h, --help            show this help message and exit
  -i INPUT, --input=INPUT
                        file : use this filename
  -d, --display         display the file in human readable format
  -m METHOD, --method=METHOD
                        display method(s) respect with a regexp
  -f FIELD, --field=FIELD
                        display field(s) respect with a regexp
  -s, --shell           open a shell to interact more easily with objects
  -v, --version         version of the API
  -p, --pretty          pretty print !
  -t TYPE_PRETTY, --type_pretty=TYPE_PRETTY
                        set the type of pretty print (0, 1) !
  -x, --xpermissions    show paths of permissions


You can download Androguard here:

How to easily root AT&T Samsung Galaxy S6 Edge Plus on any Android OS

  1. Access this page and download the pre rooted kernel; save it on your computer and unzip it on your desktop if that’s possible.
  2. Download Odin; also unzip and install the software by following on screen prompts.
  3. The Galaxy S6 Edge Plus USB drivers must be installed on your PC – use Samsung KIES for completing this task.
  4. Next, run Odin on your computer and enter download mode on your S6 Edge.
  5. For reaching download mode: first power off your device and then press and hold (at the same time, for a few moments) Power, Volume Down and Home buttons.
  6. Connect your phone with your computer with the help of the USB cable – the “added” message will be displayed on the program while the ID:COM field will be turned yellow or blue (if that’s not happening, try to reinstall the USB drivers before repeating these steps).
  7. From Odin select the PA option.
  8. Load the custom kernel file.
  9. Don’t check the Re Partition and Auto Reboot options.
  10. Click on Start when ready and wait while the process is being completed.
  11. The “pass” message will be eventually displayed; the ID:COM field will be also turned green – unplug the USB cord and reboot your phone.
  12. If a boot loop is issued, reach recovery mode and select “wipe data factory reset” and “clear app data cache” – making a hard resetand clearing app data cache can troubleshoot different software related issues.
  13. If Odin gets stuck during the root process, close the software, remove the USB connection, force restart your SGS6 Edge Plus and reinstall USB drivers before retrying everything from step 1.
  14. In the end, access Google Play and download the SuperSU utility on your smartphone in order to resume the root process.

There you have it; that’s how you can root your AT&T Samsung Galaxy S6 Edge Plus. Do tell us how things worked for you by using the comments area from down below. Enjoy.